RinaMatsumoto (rinamatsumoto) wrote,
RinaMatsumoto
rinamatsumoto

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SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS!

Help meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee. :(

trying to memorise SS ! D: 

 

FOUR GUIDING PRINCIPLES.

 

LEADERSHIP IS KEY.

 

Honest and capable leaders are needed to maintain the stability in the government and to make right decisions for the country. Good governance and leadership do not occur by chance. Potential leaders of Singapore are specially selected and groomed. Besides talent and ability, leaders are also selected based on their character. For example, the then prime minister Lee Kuan Yew persuade the late Ong Teng Cheong then an architect to give up his well paid job for an political career.

 

Honest and capable leaders are needed as they must have moral courage and integrity to do what is right and not what is popular with people so as to lead Singapore towards continued prosperity. Leaders must also be incorruptible so as to win the confidence and respect of people.

 

ANTICIPATE CHANGE AND STAY RELEVANT.

 

The decisions made by the government need to be forward looking. NEWater is an example of how the government prepares for the future by ensuring self-sufficiency in water supply.  Presently, Singapore depends on Malaysia for its water supply. Its two water agreement with Malaysia will end in 2011 and 2061. however, Singapore has found an alternative water supplies in order to be self sufficient by producing NEWater and desalinated water.

 

This example shows the importance of a forward looking government who can anticipate and meet the future needs of Singaporeans for water.

 

REWARD FOR WORK AND WORK FOR REWARD.

 

Meritocracy is a key part of principle “Reward for work and work for reward.” Meritocracy is a system that rewards hard work and talents. When people are rewarded for their hard work and abilities, they are encouraged to do well. For example, students who do well in their studies and co-curricular activites are rewarded. The edusave scholarship and merit bursary scheme rewards top 10% and 25% of students in school.

 

Meritocracy gives everybody in society an equal opportunity to achieve their best and be rewarded for their performances regardless of race, religion and socio-background. This allow those who are capable to be recruited to the key sector of economy and government service.

A STAKE FOR EVERYONE, OPPORTUNITIES FOR ALL.

 

Having a say in the decision making develops in people a greater sense of belonging to the country. More opportunities have been created to involve people in the decision making. For example in 2004, the government consulted people on the issue of having a casino as part of an integrated resort. During feedback session, Many people voiced out their supports and concerns about the government’s proposal.

 

Hence, in order for the government to response quickly to changing social contexts, feedbacks and participation from the public is very important in policy making process.

 

MEASURES TO CONTROL THE FLOW OF TRAFFIC.

AREA LICENSING SCHEME.

Under the ALS, motorists had to pay for the use of certain roads in Singapore. These roads were bounded within areas designated as restricted zones. Gantries were set up at the boundaries of city areas to monitor motorists who drove into the restricted zones. When the ALS first started, motorists were unhappy about the increased cost of traveling. However, overtime, many people showed support as the ALS was successful in ensuring smooth traffic flow in the CBD.

 

This reflected the principle “LEADERSHIP IS KEY”. Even though the ALS was unpopular among the public, the government still went ahead with the implementation as it was an effective way of ensuring smooth traffic flow that can benefit Singapore as a whole. Many people chose to take public transport or avoid driving into the restricted zones. This reduced the number of cars in the CBD.

 

ELECTRONIC ROAD PRICING.

 

ERP is an electronic system of road pricing based on a pay-as-you-use principle. It served the same purpose as the ALS, where motorist had to pay for the use of certain roads in Singapore. However, unlike ALS, ERP uses up to date technology to monitor and regulate traffic flow. Hence, the more efficient ERP replaced the labour intensive ALS in 1998. in the ERP system, payment would be deducted electronically from the cashcard inserted in the in-vehicle unit installed in each vehicle as it passes the gantry.

 

This reflected the principle “LEADERSHIP IS KEY.” Even though the ERP was unpopular among the public, the government still went ahead with the implementation as it is an effective way of ensuring smooth traffic flow that can benefit Singapore as a whole. Many people choose to take public transport or avoid driving into the restricted zones. Thus, reduce the number of cars in the CBD.

 

 

PARK AND RIDE SCHEME.

 

The park and ride scheme was also introduced at the same time as ALS to control the traffic flow in CBD. Under this scheme, motorists could park their vehicles at specific carparks which were outside the city area. From these car parks, they could use public transport to enter the city area. This meant that few vehicles would enter the CBD. However, the scheme was not successful. Of the 7700 additional parking lots created at nine sites just outside the restricted zones, only 585 lots were taken up.

 

Even though the park and ride scheme was unsuccessful in the 1970s, the scheme is still being used today. This shows that as time passes and needs of people changes, measures that did not work in the past may work today.

 

VEHICLE QUOTA SYSTEM.

 

The 1990s saw a sharp increase in car ownership because more people could afford to buy cars. There was a need to come up with a new measure to control the car population in Singapore. Under the VQS, the LTA determined the number of new motor vehicles allowed for registration by implementing the Certificate of entitlement system. Under the COE system, a specific number of new cars are issued based on the quota set by the LTA. In this way, there is a limit of new cars that can be purchases. Car buyers must first bid of the COE before they can purchase the car. In 1997, the COE alone was equal to $100,000!

 

This reflected the principle “LEADERSHIP IS KEY.” Although the high prices of COEs was unpopular among the public, the government still went ahead with the implementation as it was an effective way of ensuring smooth traffic flow that can benefit Singapore as a whole. Many people choose not to buy cars and instead take public transport because of the high price. This thus reduce the number of cars in our roads.

 

 

REASONS FOR PROMOTING POPULATION GROWTH FROM THE 1980s

 

DECLING BIRT RATE FROM THE 1980s.

 

By 1980, the fertility rate had hit 1.82 children per woman. This showed that the family planning policy to reduce birth rate had worked. Other factors like increasing costs of living and people marrying at a later age also contributed to the declining birth rate. At the same time, more jobs were created in the industries and a larger workforce was needed to sustain the nation’s development. Manpower was also need for national defence.

 

With the number of babies born falling below the replacement value, there was a need to re-examine the population policy because of the possible problems a small population would cause.

 

 

UNATTRACTIVE TO MULTINATION COMPANIES

 

With a small population, Singapore would not be able to produce enough talented people to sustain its development. Multinational corporations would find it difficult and perhaps more expensive to recruit Singaporeans compared to huge labour markets in countries like china. Singapore would also be less attractive because of its smaller consumer market.

 

Hence, the small population may lead to a decline in singapore’s economy if there are no measures taken to promote population growth.

 

AGEING POPULATION.

 

With fewer babies born each year, there would be fewer young people in the population. With a proportionately larger group of older people, Singapore would be faced with an ageing population. As a result, the Singapore government will have to spend more money providing the needs of the elderly like nursing homes and daycare centres.

 

If the Singapore government uses large amount of resources to meet the needs of the elderly, it will have lesser resources for other developments of the country.

 

DEFENCE.

 

With a declining birth rate, there would be fewer men to recruit for National Service. In the 1980s, the Ministry of Defence reported that the number of men enlisting for National service has declined from 22000 in 1980 to 17000 in 1985. this would weaken Singapore’s defence force.

 

Without the presence of a strong military force, Singaporeans will not feel secure and foreign investors will not be willing to invest in the country.

MEASURES TAKEN BY GOVERNMENT TO PROMOTE POPULATION GROWTH AFTER 1980s.

THE GRADUATE MOTHERS SCHEME.

In the 1980s, well-educated women in Singapore were not having enough children. Research has shown that children of graduates performed better at school. Thus, if female graduates did not have enough children, there would be a shortage of talented Singaporeans in the future. Graduate mothers scheme was introduced in 1984. The government gave special incentives for female graduates to have more children. For example, children of graduate mothers were given priority in terms of school admission.

With the implementation of this scheme, it was hoped that female graduates would be encouraged to have more children. However, this policy was unpopular among the less-educated as they felt that there were not treated as fairly as graduates. Thus, this policy was unsuccessful and withdrawn after one year in 1985.

 

HAVE THREE OR MORE IF YOU CAN AFFORD IT.

In view of the problems caused by a slow population growth, the government came up with a new population policy. “Have three or more if you can afford it.” in 1987. The government wanted Singaporeans to have more children only if they could afford it. It aimed at bringing singapore’s population growth back to the replacement value of 2.1 children per woman.

This policy had limited success. The number of children born per woman increased from 1.48 in 1986 to 1.96 in 1988. the increase in 1988 was partly due to it being the year of dragon, which the Chinese consider to be an auspicious year. After 1988, the number of children born per woman steadily fell, reaching a fertility rate of 1.24 in 2004.

 

OTHER PRO-FAMILY MEASURES FROM 2004.

Other pro-family measures have been introduced as a result of public feedback. Among the concerns raised was the high cost of raising children and the lack of suitable childcare arrangement. One such measure is the 5-day work week for the civil service to encourage better work-life balance. Another measure is the grandparent caregiver relief which allows an income tax relief of $3000 if a grandparent is helping the couple to take care of their child.

 These measures helped to address the concerns raised by the public so as to encourage higher birth rate. These measures had slight success. From the fertility rate of 1.24 in 2004, it has risen to 1.26 in 2006 and 1.28 in 2008. however, the fertility rate is still below the replacement value of 2.1 children per woman.

 

ATTRACTING FOREIGN TALENT.

 With a low birth rate, Singapore would not have enough young workers. In 1989, the government made it easier for foreigners to work and live in Singapore. Easier entry to Singapore and subsidized housing were offered to foreign talent. The government hopes that some of these foreigners would develop an attachment to Singapore and take up permanent residence or citizenship.

 This policy ensures that we have sufficient people in Singapore with the skills and knowledge needed for high tech companies in Singapore to thrive. Thus it is a successful policy.



hais.
all this, is only half of those that i need to memorise :(
and out all of this, not all i really memorised already :(

still got measures taken to meet challenges blahblah & healthcare :(

not going to study bonding singapore.
TOOOOO MUCH.

i'm so worried..
worried about everything :(

haaaaaaaaaaaais.
pray that everything will be good! 

jaaa.
Tags: exams♥
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